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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-26

Pattern of respiratory diseases among patients seen at the emergency unit of a tertiary health facility in South-West Nigeria

1 Department of Medicine, Respiratory Unit, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Respiratory Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
B O Adeniyi
Department of Internal Medicine, Respiratory Unit, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1596-4078.190031

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Background: Respiratory diseases constitute a large percentage of the medical conditions requiring hospital presentation. The burden of respiratory diseases presenting as emergencies need to be understood. Objective: This study aimed at reviewing the pattern of respiratory diseases in the emergency unit of Federal Medical Centre, Owo. Methods: The records of 914 patients seen with respiratory diseases from January 2007 to December 2012 were reviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics were done. Chi-square test was used to compare other sociodemographic characteristics and disease-related variables by gender. Level of statistical significant was 5%. Results: The mean age of respondents was 46.5 ± 20 years, 54.9% were 40 years and above. Males were 57.9%, 24% presented as acute conditions, 10.4% were Human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-positive. Death occurred in 7.1% within 24 h of admission. Median length of stay was 1.9 ± 1.4 days. Complicated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was diagnosed in 35.1% of the patients followed by pneumonias (26.9%) and acute severe asthma (18.4%). The mean age of male patient was 48.5 ± 20.4 years while female was 43.8 ± 18.9 years, males are significantly older than females P < 0.001. Patients with HIV were younger with mean age 35.9 ± 10.4 years compared with HIV-negative patients, 47.8 ± 20.3 years P < 0.001. More females (13.8%) were HIV-positive compared to males (7.9%), P = 0.004. Conclusion: Complicated PTB and the pneumonias were the leading causes of respiratory emergency in our environment. Not all respiratory cases seen at the emergency were acute condition. Standard precaution should be ensured as every one out of ten patients seen were HIV-positive. Disparities exist in the pattern of respiratory disease across gender.

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