|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 62-65
Abstracts faculty of dentistry annual scientific meeting 2022
|Date of Web Publication||21-Mar-2023|
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
. Abstracts faculty of dentistry annual scientific meeting 2022. Niger J Health Sci 2022;22:62-5
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Nigerian Undergraduate Dental Students' Perceptions and Experiences of Mentoring
Adeoti BT1, Otuyemi OD2
1Dental Hospital Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, 2Department of Child Dental Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State
Background: Mentoring experiences and perceptions of undergraduate dental students have never been documented despite six decades of dental training in Nigeria. This study assessed dental students' perceptions and experiences of mentoring in Nigerian dental faculties.
Methods: A non-probability sample of 382 dental students (100–600 levels) were recruited from all the 13 Nigerian dental faculties through an online self-administered questionnaire sent on a Google Forms platform. Analysis was done using descriptive and analytical statistics on SPSS version 20. The statistically significant level was set at P < 0.05.
Results: The students showed a good knowledge of the term 'mentoring' and adequate understanding of the role of a mentor with 99.0% and 67.3%, respectively. Many students had experienced mentoring prior to their dental training, mainly from religious institutions (60.0%). Majority (96.1%) of the students would like to be mentored in the faculty from 100 levels; however, only 21.2% had assigned mentors. More than half (57.6%) would prefer to choose their mentor, and majority (43.2%) were indifferent about the gender of their mentor. About two-thirds (64.4%) of the students perceived career development to be most important for mentoring. The benefits of mentoring were ranked very highly by the students, especially the female gender. Gender was the only predictor for successful mentoring (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: While most of the Nigerian dental students had experienced one form of mentoring or the other, majority would like to be mentored by the dental faculty mainly for career development and they, therefore, recommended that the subject be incorporated into the dental curriculum.
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Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Prevalence and Patterns in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife: A 5-year Retrospective Study
Fatusi OA1, Adeola OE2
1Dental Hospital Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, 2Department of Child Dental Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State
Background: Mandibular third molars are the most common tooth to get impacted. The prevalence and pattern of impacted mandibular third molars in patients presenting to the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC) is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of impacted mandibular third molar with associated pathologies in patients who presented at the dental centre of OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, from January 2015 to December 2019.
Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 469 patients who presented at the dental centre in the OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. Patients' medical records and periapical radiographs were assessed from January 2015 to December 2019. Sociodemographic and clinical details of the patients were obtained and analysed. The position of impacted tooth was assessed using Winter's classification. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 20. Variables were analysed using frequencies and percentage, and likelihood ratio was used to measure the level of significance.
Results: The prevalence of impacted mandibular third molar in the study population was 2.51%. Impacted mandibular third molar was more common in the 21–29-year age group (P < 0.001). Mesioangular impaction was the most common (36.5%), followed by distoangular (31.4%), horizontal (16.4%) and vertical (15.8%). Pericoronitis was the most common indication for extraction (96.4%) while pocket (74.9%) was the most commonly associated pathology observed in the study population.
Conclusion: The prevalence of impacted mandibular third molar was low (2.51%). The most common impaction type was mesioangular impaction. Pocket formation mesial to the impacted tooth was the most commonly associated pathology and found in relation to mesioangular impaction.
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Civilian Gunshot Orofacial Injury in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital: A 10-year Retrospective Review
Akinniyi TA1, Aregbesola SB1,2, Famurewa BA1,2, Akomolafe AG1
1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Background: Gunshot-related injuries to the face are relatively rare in peacetime. This study reported the pattern of presentation and management of orofacial civilian gunshot injuries at a Nigerian tertiary hospital. The study objective was to evaluate the pattern of orofacial gunshot injuries and to evaluate the circumstances that lead to orofacial gunshot injuries.
Methods: Medical records of patients who sustained gunshot injuries to the face and managed at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, between 2010 and 2019 were reviewed. Patients' demographics, wounding mechanisms, clinical presentations and treatment administered were retrieved from the patients' case record. Patient records with incomplete information were excluded. Data generated were analysed by IBM-SPSS version 26.
Results: A total of 2847 patients were admitted through our department over the study period. Twenty-five of them sustained orofacial gunshot injuries, giving a prevalence of 0.9%. There were 22 males and 3 females, with a male-to-female ratio of 7.3:1. The mean age was 37.60 ± 11.86 years with the highest prevalence at the fourth decade. About two-thirds of these injuries were intentionally inflicted by others with the use of Dane guns on highways. Majority (64%) of these injuries involved the middle third of the face. Definitive treatments ranged from simple to complex reconstructive procedures to restore pre-injury form and functions.
Conclusion: Gunshot injury involving the maxillofacial region is uncommon. The male gender was predominantly affected. The middle third facial skeleton was the most involved anatomic site. Most of these injuries were intentionally inflicted by others using Dane gun.
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Evaluation of Facial Aesthetics Using Anthropometric Dimensions
Kumolu AF1, Kolawole KA1,2, Ajao IE3
1Dental Hospital, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, 2Department of Child Dental Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State, 3Dental Centre, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Background: The study determined anthropometric facial dimensions of a sample of young Nigerian females, compared derived proportions with ideal facial proportion and new golden ratio values and investigated the relationship with perceived facial aesthetics.
Methods: Standardised frontal facial photographs of female undergraduates were obtained from which anthropometric measurements and proportions opined to contribute to facial aesthetics were derived. Another sample of undergraduates evaluated the photographs on a Visual Analogue Scale for aesthetics. Data were analysed with independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA on SPSS. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results: The mean horizontal middle third dimension (61.04 mm, standard deviation [SD] =1 1.79) was significantly lower than upper (73.10 mm, SD = 10.82) and lower third dimensions (75.49 mm, SD = 6.17) (P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed between vertical fifth dimensions (P < 0.001); the most lateral vertical fifth facial dimensions had low values of 27.23 mm (SD = 4.45) and 29.87 mm (SD = 4.29). Derived facial proportions did not conform to the ideal proportion of 1:1.618, the upper lip-to-total lip ratio was 1:3.1 and the derived new golden ratios were 0.35 (vertical) and 0.24 (horizontal). A significant difference was observed between nose-to-chin and nose-to-forehead dimensions between photographs judged as aesthetic and unaesthetic (P = 0.033).
Conclusion: The horizontal third and vertical fifth facial dimensions studied were unequal. Derived facial proportions did not conform to ideal facial proportion and new golden ratio values. Deviations from ideal facial proportions can exist with perceived pleasing aesthetics.
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Regional Odontodysplasia in a Nigerian Child: A Case Report
Azeez OG1, Anago OJ2, Chukwumah NM2,3
Departments of 1Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and 2Preventive Dentistry, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Background: Regional odontodysplasia also known as 'ghost teeth' is a rare developmental disorder whose aetiology is unknown with several causative factors such as trauma and infections to name a few suspected to have been linked with the condition. It affects both primary and permanent dentition with a female predilection. It is usually localised to one segment of the jaw. Involved teeth appear yellowish-brown, smaller than normal, have rough surfaces and are prone to fracture. Radiographically, enamel and dentine are thinner than normal and lack demarcation, and pulp chambers are large with short roots. Managements of these cases are based on the aesthetics and functional needs as well as the degree of involvement of the tooth at presentation. It is a report of a rare incidental finding of regional odontodysplasia.
Case Report: A 6-year-old girl presented to the Paediatric Dentistry Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital with a complaint of pain from a tooth in the upper right quadrant. Periapical radiograph revealed lack of distinction between enamel and dentine, large pulp chamber with short roots of tooth 55 and unerupted 16. Management was the extraction of the affected tooth with the possibility of stainless-steel crown placement on 16 after eruption. The patient is still being monitored.
Conclusion: Increased awareness of regional odontodysplasia is important and management should be case-specific and should be approached individualistically.
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Burden and Trends of Oral Diseases in Nigeria from 1990 to 2017: An Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Attia DY1, Oyapero A2, Nzomiwu CL3, Bhayat A4, El Tantawi M1, Folayan MO5
1Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, 2Department of Preventive Dentistry, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, 3Department of Child Dental Health, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, 5Department of Child Dental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, 4Department of Community Dentistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Background: The quantification of the burden and the changing trends of oral diseases and the associated risk factors help in the planning of behavioural and structural interventions to improve oral health and eliminate disparities. The study objectives were to assess trends in the prevalence of untreated dental caries in primary and permanent teeth, severe periodontitis and total tooth loss in Nigeria between 1990 and 2017 and compare this with other African countries.
Methods: A review of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 report by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, USA, was conducted. The estimates of the number of people affected by untreated dental caries in primary and permanent teeth, severe periodontitis and total tooth loss in Nigeria between 1990 and 2017 were documented. These numbers were compared with estimates made for 50 other African countries.
Results: Nigeria had one of the lowest population burdens of all oral conditions in the world in 2017 with 7,919,790 persons with untreated caries in the primary dentition, 25,665,924 with untreated caries in the permanent dentition, 4,303,337 with severe periodontitis and 1,586,160 with total tooth loss. Between 1990 and 2017, there was a 22.5% increase in the number of persons with untreated caries in the primary dentition placing the country in the 7th lowest position of change in this disease prevalence in Africa. There was a 91.5% increase in the number of persons with untreated caries in the permanent dentition, and thus, Nigeria had the 20th lowest percentage change in the prevalence of this disease in Africa. Furthermore, there was a 159.9% increase in the prevalence of severe periodontitis, making Nigeria the country with the 11th highest per cent change in the prevalence in Africa. Finally, there was a 142.9% increase in the prevalence of total tooth loss placing Nigeria in the 25th highest rank of per cent change in prevalence of tooth loss in Africa. Nigeria ranked the 20th African country with the lowest per cent change in the prevalence of oral disease between 1990 and 2017.
Conclusion: Although the prevalence of oral diseases in Nigeria is growing slowly, proactive measures are needed to reverse this trend in the country.
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Outputs, Impact and Patterns of Collaboration of Dental Research Conducted in Nigeria
El Tantawi M1, Folayan MO2, Bhayat A3
1Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Dep, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, 2Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Dep, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Dep, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Background: African research represents a minor portion of global dental research. The study assessed the output, impact, pattern of collaboration and publishing, funding, types of studies and organisations contributing to dental research in Nigeria.
Methods: Data were extracted from Clarivate-Incites, Scival and MEDLINE to assess the profile of dental research in Nigeria, 2002–2021. The profile was compared with the top-five African countries. Indicators used were research output (number of articles, overall, in Q1 and Q2 journals), impact (field-weighted citation impact [FWCI]), collaboration patterns (% with international, exclusively national and single authors), mode of publishing (open access, gold and green access), funding agencies by nationality, types of studies and key players.
Results: Nigeria is one of the top three African countries in the number and percentages of articles with international collaboration. In 2017–2021, there were no single-author dental articles from Nigeria. The FWCI has been higher than the global average starting 2020. There was a greater growth in articles published in Q2 than Q1 journals and a growth in open-access publishing reaching 52% in 2016–2020. The greatest international collaboration was with institutions from the US and with South Africa and Egypt in Africa. Most funded papers cited US-based funding agencies with no national research funders. Clinical trials and systematic reviews formed a minor portion of papers. Five institutions (Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Lagos, University of Ibadan, University of Benin and University of Nigeria) generated 68% of the dental articles and had 75% of citations.
Conclusion: Nigerian dental institutions have great potential to contribute to international dental research that needs to be fully actualised. The opportunities include a growth in international collaboration, internationally funded studies and publication in open-access journals. Greater research output, more clinical trials and systematic reviews are needed.
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Comparison of Dental Healthcare Workforce in Nigeria, Egypt and South Africa
Aly NM1, Adeniyi AA2, Bhayat A3, El Tantawi M1, Folayan MO4
1Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, 2Department of Preventive Dentistry, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, 4Department of Child Dental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, 3Department of Community Dentistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Background: National oral health policies aim to reduce the burden of oral diseases and provide healthcare services that meet the dental needs of the population. This study assessed the number of dental schools, dental graduates, dentists, other dental healthcare personnel and dentist-to-population ratios in Nigeria and compared this to Egypt and South Africa.
Methods: A review was conducted of the literature, the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Federation of Dentists and governments' reports to gain insights into the dental healthcare workforce profile in the three countries.
Results: There are 17 accredited dental schools in Nigeria that produced 4358 dentists and graduate an average of 400 dentists annually. This number is low compared to Egypt with 42 accredited dental schools, 67,571 dentists and an average of 8000 dental graduates annually and South Africa with 5 accredited dental schools, 6374 dentists and an average of 230 dental graduates annually. Nigeria has a dentist-to-population ratio of 1:48,400, while Egypt has a ratio of 1:4146 and South Africa has a ratio of 1:9350. Nigeria's and South Africa's figures are higher than the WHO's recommended ratio of 1:7500, while Egypt has a lower ratio.
Conclusion: The number of dentists in Nigeria is lower than that of Egypt and South Africa with almost 6.5 times higher dentist-to-population ratio than that recommended by the WHO. Training more dentists and retaining them in the workforce in Nigeria can complement efforts to provide preventative and curative dental healthcare services to the general population.
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Evaluating a Canadian Integrated Prenatal Oral Healthcare Delivery Model Using Qualitative Methods
Adeniyi AA1, Leeann D2, Patricia J3, Cecilia J4, Hsimgchi VB1, Mario B1
1Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Oral and Biological Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, 3School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 4Department of Family Practice, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Background: Integration of preventive oral health into prenatal care is recommended in British Columbia (BC), Canada; however, no clear approach exists. The study objective was to initially evaluate a model for integrated prenatal oral care based on the perspectives of pregnant women and healthcare providers in BC.
Methods: Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 37 purposefully selected pregnant women and healthcare professionals in BC. Participants appraised an existing model developed by Stevens et al. (2007). Based on their opinions, an alternative model was developed and presented to 14 of the original participants during secondary interviews. The interviews were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Study rigor was ensured via memoing, field notes, member checking and external audit.
Results: During the primary interviews, most participants considered the existing model straightforward and simple, but not reflective of the BC context. Communication strategies and interprofessional collaboration were proposed for inclusion in the model. Participants also highlighted funding and advocacy for oral healthcare as important factors for integration. Secondary interviews were conducted to further evaluate the revised model produced based on participant feedback. Participants proposed additional modifications, such as a care delivery pathway comprising desirable prenatal oral care activities before, during and after pregnancy.
Conclusion: Participants' appraisal of an existing model for the delivery of integrated prenatal oral health in British Columbia, Canada, led to inclusion of additional components and graphical modifications. The revised model incorporates suggestions of the pregnant women and healthcare providers. Further evaluation of the appropriateness of the refined model is suggested.
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Is Maternal Stress and Depression Status Associated with Dental Service Utilisation and Dental Anxiety amongst 6–12-year-olds in Ile-Ife, Nigeria?
Adeniyi AA1, Folayan MO2, Arowolo O3, Chukwumah NM4, Oziegbe E2, Alade M3, El Tantawi M5
1Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Department of Child Dental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, 5Department of Preventive Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt
Background: Maternal mental health may affect dental service utilisation and dental anxiety level of school-aged children.
Objective: We sought to determine the associations between maternal mental health, children's dental anxiety and dental service utilisation status in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Methods: A household survey was conducted to collect data from mother and child dyads in Ife Central Local Government Area. Data collected included confounding (child's age at last birthday, sex at birth and socioeconomic status), independent (maternal psychological stress and depression status) and dependent (child's dental anxiety level and most recent dental visit) variables. Bivariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to test the associations between the dependent and independent variables while adjusting for confounders.
Results: Data were collected for 1411 mother–child dyads. Significantly lower odds for dental anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.094, confidence interval [CI]: 0.80–0.293; P = 0.001) and insignificantly lower odds for a recent dental visit (AOR: 0.892, CI: 0.664; P = 0.450) were observed amongst children of mothers with high psychological stress. Children of mothers with depressive symptoms had insignificantly lower odds for dental anxiety level (AOR: −0.037, CI: −0.115–0.021; 0.178) and insignificantly lower odds for a recent dental visit (AOR: 0.995, CI: 0.856–1.155; P = 0.943).
Conclusion: The current study results suggest that maternal psychological stress and not depression may increase the risk for dental anxiety but not dental service utilisation amongst Nigerian school-aged children. Future studies could explore the mediating or moderating effect of maternal psychological stress on the known association between dental anxiety and poor dental service utilisation.
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Factors Associated with Initiation of Tobacco Smoking amongst Current Smokers in a Nigerian Tertiary Institution
Ayeni OO, Nwota SU
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Background: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of avoidable death globally killing nearly six million people worldwide annually. The study objective was to determine the factors associated with initiation of tobacco smoking.
Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a convenient sample of 128 current smokers aged ≥18 years. The questionnaire was adapted from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Global Adult Tobacco Survey: Core Questionnaire with Optional Questions, Version 2.0, 2010.
Results: One hundred and twenty-four (96.9%) males and 4 (3.1%) females participated in the study. The mean age of study participants was 29.94 (SD = ±8.55). The mean age of smoking initiation was 20.1 (SD = ±3.61). Peer influence (53.1%) was the most common reason for smoking. Others were relief of depression (21.9%), fun (9.4%) and as a stimulant (9.4%). Only 6.2% had no stated reasons for smoking.
Conclusion: Peer influences, relief of depression, fun and stimulant effect are important motivations for initiation of tobacco smoking. These factors should be targeted in smoking prevention to discourage the uptake of the habit.