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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-9

Influence of female gender on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults in South-South Nigeria

1 Department of Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria
3 Department of Haematology, Abia State University, Aba, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. A K Ajeigbe
Department of Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njhs.njhs_17_22

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Background: Metabolic syndrome is a recognised public health concern due to the increasing incidence of obesity worldwide. However, non-obese normal-weight individuals may also present with metabolic syndrome. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals as well as determine the gender influence. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 apparently healthy controls were recruited for this study. Information on demography and medical history was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were obtained using standard instruments followed by 5 ml of blood collected from the antecubital vein of each participant. The blood specimens were separated using a centrifuge to yield plasma and serum for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and total cholesterol assays, respectively. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used to determine the presence of metabolic syndrome. Participants were stratified into normal weight (non-obese) and above normal weight (overweight and obese) using body mass index (BMI). The above-normal weight participants were further stratified into overweight and Class I, II and III obesity using the corresponding BMI. Student's t-test was used to compare groups. The alpha level was set at P < 0.05. Results: The overweight/obese (53.9 ± 12.3 years) participants were significantly older than the normal-weight participants (43.9 ± 15.8 years), P < 0.05, with a male-to-female ratio of 0.85:1 and 1.6:1, respectively. Systolic BP (130.9 ± 21.3 mmHg) and FPG (6.5 ± 2.7 mmol/L) were significantly higher in above normal weight than normal weight (121.3 ± 17.3 mmHg and 5.1 ± 1.5 mmol/L). Metabolic syndrome was present in 47.4% and 7.7% of overweight/obese and normal weight, respectively, while females had a significantly higher proportion of metabolic syndrome in both the above normal weight (31.6%) and the normal weight (7.7%), respectively. Conclusion: Females and older individuals may likely develop metabolic syndrome irrespective of BMI. Normal-weight individuals have a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

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