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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2022
Volume 22 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 39-65

Online since Tuesday, March 21, 2023

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Oral Health is Total Health p. 39
Solomon Olusegun Nwhator
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Determinants of road traffic crashes among intercity commercial drivers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria p. 41
OA Olakulehin, SA Olowookere, T Ilori, FO Fehintola, AA Abiodun, GE Ihimekpen, AO Isangedighi, RA Muibi, PD Ojedeji
Background: Road traffic crashes are a common cause of preventable injury and death worldwide including in Nigeria. Objective: This study assessed the determinants of road traffic crashes among intercity commercial drivers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study design. Three hundred and fifty commercial drivers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the occurrence and determinants of road traffic crashes. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The respondents were male, with a mean age of 45.6 (10.6) years, married (88.9%), had secondary education (57.4%) and earned above $5/month (94.3%). Only 28.3% attended driving school, 26.9% started driving <10 years and 65.4% drove more than 8 h daily with morning hours considered the busiest (63.4%). Over one-third (36.7%) of the respondents had experienced road traffic crashes with 86.7% driving when crashes occurred. The identified causes of road traffic crashes include bad roads (37.5%), burst tyre (18.8%), over-speeding (18%) and brake failure (16.4%). Other causes include driving fatigue/sleeping while driving (14.1%), driving at night (14.1%) and environmental factors (13.3%). The outcome of road traffic crashes includes vehicular damage (75%), injury to the passenger (45.3%) and driver (38.3%) with fatal (13.3%). The determinants of road traffic crashes include young age (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 8.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.15–17.7; P = 0.001), using sedatives (AOR = 6.49; 95% CI = 2.91–14.46; P = 0.001), alcohol use (AOR = 17.76; 95% CI = 8.72–36.16; P = 0.001), night driving (AOR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.41–6.78; P = 0.005) and driving over 8 h per day (AOR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.40–5.53; P = 0.004). Conclusion: Road traffic crashes were common among young commercial intercity drivers with causes varying from human, mechanical and environmental factors. Strategy to reduce these factors will improve road safety among commercial drivers.
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Prevalence and outcome of higher-order multiples in Ilesa, Nigeria p. 46
OA Solaja, AO Fehintola, O Ayegbusi, AD Ajiboye, OO Fadare, OI Bakare
Introduction: This study reviewed the current prevalence of higher-order multiples (HOMs) in our institution compared to earlier documentation in the 1970s. We also reviewed factors that influenced the observed changes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study of HOM was conducted between January 2015 and December 2020. We reviewed case records of the parturient with HOM. We retrieved relevant information from the case records obtained from the central record department. Results: Eleven HOM (eight triplets and three quadruplets) out of the 4821 deliveries that occurred during the same period putting the prevalence at 0.23%. All the quadruplets were conceived via assisted reproductive technology. All the deliveries were through caesarean sections with no documented asphyxiated baby. There was a significant difference between the mean gestational age and mean birth weight at delivery (P = 0.029, P = 0.002) between the triplets and quadruplets' gestation, respectively. However, the mother's booking status and steroid administration did not significantly affect the foetal outcomes. There were three stillbirths in this review, and all were from the triplet gestation. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of HOM in this study is higher than that of the 1970s. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) contributed mainly to this increase. Good antenatal care and quick referral, and early presentation when complication ensues reduced perinatal morbidity and mortality.
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Effect of stigma on COVID-19 cases management at the treatment unit of the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon p. 51
C Kouanfack, K Kuathe, A Zemsi, S Zemsi, A Edingue, E Youm, A Nangmo, M Sanou, E Sobngwi, JP Fouda, J Ateudjieu
Background: The coronavirus pandemic coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has affected the whole world, causing the lives of many victims. Africa has recorded more than a million cases and Cameroon around 18,600 cases (August 2020) since the first case was notified. The rapid spread of this disease (among other factors) could have contributed to creating a situation of fear and stigma among affected populations. It is, therefore, necessary to identify the characteristics of this stigma and its effect on the case management of this disease. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study with positive COVID-19 people at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, from May 2020 to June 2020. A questionnaire adapted from the stigma index of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus and from the SAPHORA-MCO 2009 guide was administered to participants. Results: Among 138 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection during the study, 134 (97%) accepted the study, 115 (85.8%) reported auto-stigmatisation, 29 (22%) indicated having been stigmatised by the community and 20 (15%) by medical personnel. Auto-stigmatisation increased the risk of seeking care late (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4 with a confidence interval [CI] of 0.99–11.5; P = 0.049), unlike stigma by the community, which tended to result in early care seeking, but not significantly (OR = 0.6 with a CI of 0.26–1.66; P = 0.479). Conclusion: Stigma is highly prevalent among patients affected by COVID-19. Action should be taken to address stigma to increase the overall adherence to disease control strategies.
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Huge mucinous cystadenoma in pregnancy: A case report from Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria, and review of challenges in management p. 56
MS Archibong, M Amuda, OJ Olayemi, OC Eze, OD Ojo, EO Ayegbusi
Huge ovarian masses in pregnancy can have significant impact and effect on pregnancy outcome. Mucinous cystadenoma is a benign tumour of the ovary, which sometimes can undergo significant growth in pregnancy, thereby posing certain challenges in management. A case of a 26-year-old G4P1 +2 with huge mucinous cystadenoma is presented, who had an elective caesarean section at term and right salpingo-oophorectomy. Ovarian mass measured 40 cm × 30 cm. The challenges in management are highlighted and discussed.
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Uptake and adherence to treatment for lung cancers in Nigeria: A single-centre experience p. 59
OO Adewole, O Awopeju, A Komolafe, A Osigbeme, V Andero, G Erhabor
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Abstracts faculty of dentistry annual scientific meeting 2022 p. 62

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