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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2023
Volume 23 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-36

Online since Monday, July 17, 2023

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Saving the breasts of Nigerian breast cancer patients: Prospects of breast-conserving therapy in Nigeria p. 1
O Olasehinde
Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is the most common surgical treatment for breast cancer in high-income countries. In Nigeria and many other low-middle income countries, total mastectomy remains the mainstay. This often results in several women facing numerous psychosocial challenges associated with the removal of their breasts. This paper highlights the limitations and prospects of BCT in Nigeria. Increased community awareness aimed at promoting early presentation, more liberal use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, introduction of multidisciplinary team meetings, availability of other relevant support services and improved access to radiotherapy are key factors needed to change the current narrative. Nigeria, with its huge population of affected and at-risk women, needs to intensify the drive towards de-escalating breast cancer surgery. These measures have the potential of saving lives and preserving the quality of life of affected women.
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Influence of female gender on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults in South-South Nigeria p. 5
AK Ajeigbe, OF Adewolu, CL Uche, IH Ojelabi, OE Olukoyejo, OJ Jokanola, OO Odun-Afolabi, ES Idogun
Background: Metabolic syndrome is a recognised public health concern due to the increasing incidence of obesity worldwide. However, non-obese normal-weight individuals may also present with metabolic syndrome. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals as well as determine the gender influence. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 apparently healthy controls were recruited for this study. Information on demography and medical history was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were obtained using standard instruments followed by 5 ml of blood collected from the antecubital vein of each participant. The blood specimens were separated using a centrifuge to yield plasma and serum for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and total cholesterol assays, respectively. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used to determine the presence of metabolic syndrome. Participants were stratified into normal weight (non-obese) and above normal weight (overweight and obese) using body mass index (BMI). The above-normal weight participants were further stratified into overweight and Class I, II and III obesity using the corresponding BMI. Student's t-test was used to compare groups. The alpha level was set at P < 0.05. Results: The overweight/obese (53.9 ± 12.3 years) participants were significantly older than the normal-weight participants (43.9 ± 15.8 years), P < 0.05, with a male-to-female ratio of 0.85:1 and 1.6:1, respectively. Systolic BP (130.9 ± 21.3 mmHg) and FPG (6.5 ± 2.7 mmol/L) were significantly higher in above normal weight than normal weight (121.3 ± 17.3 mmHg and 5.1 ± 1.5 mmol/L). Metabolic syndrome was present in 47.4% and 7.7% of overweight/obese and normal weight, respectively, while females had a significantly higher proportion of metabolic syndrome in both the above normal weight (31.6%) and the normal weight (7.7%), respectively. Conclusion: Females and older individuals may likely develop metabolic syndrome irrespective of BMI. Normal-weight individuals have a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome.
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Comparing 16S rRNA gene similarity with simple polar lipids profiling amongst Salmonella isolates p. 10
I M T Fadlalla, ME Hamid, A G A Rahim, E D M Elamin
Background and Objectives: Polar lipids and the 16S rRNA gene have a significant role in taxonomic characteristics. The study's objective is to determine the potential relationship between simple migration distances (mm) of polar lipids and Salmonella's 16S rRNA gene similarity. Materials and Methods: Based on 16S RNA sequences and simple thin-layer chromatography migration distances (mm) of polar lipids, allowed to compare the various Salmonellae species, and apply it to examine the variability and estimate bacterial similarities. Results: The chromatography migration distance analysis revealed 3–4 spots of polar lipids. The polar lipids revealed two denser spots, the most abundant lipids, between 10 and 28 mm. The other two low-density spots of migration distance ranged in size from 23 to 25 mm. Between 99.4% and 100% of the three Salmonella isolates and other Salmonella species exhibited 16S rRNA similarities. One strain had a similarity of 98.9%. These findings demonstrated the nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and polar lipids profile of the isolates. Conclusions: This study has concluded that all Salmonella species share similarities in both the polar lipid profiles and the 16S rRNA genes. The study validates the utility of coupling of polar lipids and 16S rRNA gene sequencing as useful tools for taxonomic differentiation and epidemiological tracing of Salmonella.
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Determinants of willingness to uptake prostate cancer screening amongst Men in Ile-Ife, Nigeria p. 17
FO Fehintola, OA Ogundele, O Olusiyan, U Okpala, OE Folorunso, AA Amuda
Background: Prostate cancer is a major health problem amongst middle-aged and elderly men globally. Screening can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from prostate cancer, but this is hardly done amongst men in developing countries. This study assessed the factors associated with prostate cancer screening amongst men over 40 years in the Ife central local government area. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 261 men that were selected by multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested self-administered questionnaire and analysed using IBM SPSS Version 21. The Chi-square test was used for the association, while logistic regression was used to determine the predictors. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of respondents was 45 ± 3.1 years. About 34.4% had a good knowledge of prostate cancer, while more than two-thirds of the respondents (67.2%) had ever heard of prostate cancer screening. Only 10.7% of the respondents had ever been screened for prostate cancer. Majority of the respondents (73.4%) were willing to be screened for prostate cancer. Determinants of willingness to be screened for prostate cancer were older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.09–5.46, P = 0.001), being married (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.57–3.84, P = 0.034), formal level of education (AOR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.67–6.87, P = 0.014) and good knowledge of prostate cancer (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.76–7.85, P = 0.001). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to intensify health education on knowledge of prostate cancer and its screening amongst Nigerian men to enhance prostate cancer screening uptake amongst them.
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How comparable is electronic to radiographic method in working length determination during endodontic treatment? p. 24
TO Ogundare, KO Ogundipe, AM Akinpelu, CT Bamise, AO Oginni
Background: Working length (WL) determination continues to be an important stage for a successful outcome of root canal treatment. Accuracy of the WL determination methods remains a subject of debate, thus this study aimed to assess how comparable the two methods of radiographic and electronic WL determination is. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study done at the Conservative Unit of the Dental Hospital, OAUTHC, Ile – Ife to compare radiographic and electronic apex locator (EAL) methods of WL determination during endodontic treatment. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS version 22, IBM, USA). The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean age of the study population was 36.22 ± 10.74 years, whereas there were 8 (44.4%) males and 10 (55.6%) females. Forty-one canals (13; 31.7% single, 5; 24.4% double and 6;43.9% triple canals) from 24 teeth in 18 participants had endodontic therapy. The adjusted radiographic mean WL was as follows: maxilla; 20.33 ± 1.44, mandible; 20.59 ± 1.97, single canal; 19.67 ± 1.60, double canal; 19.20 ± 0.79, triple canal; 20.06 ± 2.31, anterior teeth; 19.83 ± 1.84 and posterior teeth; 19.53 ± 1.75. With the EAL, the mean values were as follows: maxilla; 19.35 ± 1.35, mandible; 19.95 ± 1.76, single canal; 19.50 ± 1.83, double canal; 19.10 ± 0.57, triple canal; 20.11 ± 1.84, anterior teeth; 19.67 ± 2.12 and posterior teeth; 19.68 ± 1.51. There were no statistically significant (P > 0.05) differences between the two methods of WL determination except in the maxilla (P < 0.001) when compared by the type of canals, tooth location, and tooth arch. Conclusion: Both methods of WL determination showed a high level of accuracy when compared and can be used singly.
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Parental perception of and willingness to accept human papillomavirus vaccine for their children amongst civil servants in Ibadan p. 31
I Adeagbo, OO Sekoni, OF Owopetu
Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer amongst women worldwide and leading cancer in women in developing countries including Nigeria. However, utilisation of the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) is quite low, resulting in poor uptake of an important preventive measure to combat cervical cancer. This study was conducted to determine the parental perception of and willingness to accept the HPV vaccine for their children amongst civil servants in Ibadan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 400 civil servants in the Oyo state secretariat, Ibadan. Pre-tested interviewer-assisted questionnaires were distributed to the respondents to collect data for 6 weeks. Descriptive statistics including frequency and percentage for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables were calculated. Results: Almost half (50.3%) and 85% of the total respondents' had heard about the HPV vaccine and were willing to accept HPV vaccine for their children, respectively, while 87.7%, 86.7% and 85.7% of the respondents' were willing to accept HPV vaccine for their children in future if it was free, prescribed by a doctor and included in routine immunisation respectively. A high proportion (81.6%) of the total respondents had good perceptions of the vaccine and the majority of them identified knowledge, safety, effectiveness, cost, potency and fear of side effects of the vaccine as factors influencing its acceptability. Conclusion: Despite the low awareness of the HPV vaccine amongst the study group, most parents had good perceptions regarding the vaccine and were willing to vaccinate their wards.
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